Tue, 29 Nov 1994 20:51:23 -0800 (PST)
Here's a posting I pulled off Usenet about Taos. I think we should
derive some of our goals from this message.
>From email@example.com Tue Nov 29 10:38:17 PST 1994
Please e'mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org
and we will be able to help you with any questions you may have.
For you immediate information I have enclosed the Introductory Chapter of
An Introduction To Taos
This document has been designed to address a wide audience. It gives a
brief introduction to the ideas behind Taos and its benefits. We have
attempted to keep the technological language to a minimum, however, some
of the sections get progressively more technical, so if you find that you
don't understand something, then move on to the next section.
Computing has been getting steadily more restrictive. The move to so
called 'open' systems has not helped improve portability, has not
produced credible support for parallel systems and has not stopped the
further development of increasingly complex interfaces between operating
systems and applications. All in all, it has done nothing to improve the
lot of the developer or the consumer.
The Taos operating system addresses these issues. Its existence and
success is good news for technology from small embedded systems through
to supercomputers and large scale network applications.
Taos is not conventional, as it has not evolved from an existing
operating system. Tao Systems developed Taos taking into account the
commercial and technological realities of the time whilst also removing
the limitations enforced upon the user market.
Taos, a compact, general purpose kernel for parallel systems embodies a
number of vital ideas.
Taos applications run on different processor architecture's without
any re-compilation of programs.
Taos provides an optimum distribution of processes over the network.
Parallel applications are able to execute over networks of dissimilar
Only those parts of an application which are needed at any time are
loaded into memory.
A piece of code loaded into memory, is available to all programs which
Taos uses a process-based programming model.
Taos has an object-based program design model.
Messaging does not halt the sending process.
Taos has a very compact implementation, optimising performance and
minimising memory requirements.
The Challenge of Parallel Systems
So, why has parallel processing remained on the periphery, given the
obvious potential this technique has to increase the power of computers
way beyond that possible from increasing the power of a single processor?
The answer is that, whilst it is comparatively easy to build massive
parallel computers, programming them has proven immensely difficult.
This has been due to a number of factors including:
1.A lack of a suitable general purpose programming methodology;
2.Programs written to run on one machine tend to be tied to that one
machine, possibly to a single configuration;
3.Uncertainty as to the which computation and communications model to use.
Features & Benefits
Taos is a software response to the challenge of harnessing parallel
hardware. Parallel systems are complex, comprising thousands of
processors with differing amounts of memory, link standards and so on.
Taos exploits the power of the hardware, whilst presenting the programmer
with a clean, simple and powerful programming environment.
Taos enables programmers to think about the design of their applications
in terms of parallel processes. They are completely free to build any
structure of processes and communications they need. It is the
programmer's responsibility to think about their application and identify
the appropriate decomposition into parallel processes. But once this is
determined, Taos will manage the distribution of these processes on any
target network. Programmers need not concern themselves with the details
of the actual hardware and network architecture upon which their
applications will run, including adjustments to the network size. Taos
grows over all processors available on the network, and will expand if
more processors are added; whilst applications grow over the available
processors as they create objects during their execution.
This means that it is easier to write 'shrink-wrapped' applications for
parallel computers using Taos than it is to write them for single
processor operating systems, as applications code will run on any
processor supported by Taos.
Taos uses a process and communications model of parallelism. Each process
can execute on a separate processor, and talk by sending messages to each
other. The processes are fast and can only interact by passing messages.
There is deliberately no concept of shared memory, though Taos can be
implemented on shared memory machines.
Taos does not attempt to evolve from a sequential model; extracting
parallelism from sequential programs does not and will not work. So, Taos
has been designed as a perfect fit for parallel systems. Taos software
exploits parallelism; creating parallel applications using Taos is easy.
By creating objects and passing messages, the programmer generates the
opportunity for Taos to distribute the objects over processors and thus
The final important point to re-emphasise is that it is up to the
programmer to write their programs so that the objects can execute in
parallel. Parallelism is not automatically created, nor should it be.
There are instances where a program must be sequential to behave
Portability is normally taken to mean that programs written in a language
(such as C) to run on a particular processor, can be re-compiled to run
on a different processor without the need to re-write any (or a small
portion) of the code. This approach has its limitations as a new compiler
needs to be written for every processor type introduced. This can consume
a great deal of effort to achieve.
Taos takes a different approach. By targeting all compiled code at the
Taos Virtual Processor, porting relates only to the VP itself and not to
the applications, whatever language they may be written in. In effect the
portability has been taken from the language level to the processor
level. Furthermore, this low level portability facilitates heterogeneous
processing support. See Heterogeneous Processing, below.
Taos can be ported with little effort to any processor or communications
hardware. The only part of Taos that needs to be re-coded to support a
new physical processor, is the Translator. The Translator is the program
which converts VP code into the native code for the processor. Once the
translator is written, all applications written for any processor, in any
language which compiles to VP, will become instantly executable on the
new processor type.
So, to reiterate; programs written on any supported platform will run on
all other supported platforms without any changes; you don't even have to
The first Taos virtual processor was an imaginary 32bit microprocessor.
It has already been extended to create a 64bit version and can be taken
further with no limitation.
All programs are compiled or assembled into virtual processor code and
are kept in this form on disk. The VP code is translated into the native
code of the processor on which it is to run only when it is needed. The
translation occurs as the VP code is loaded from disk, across the network
and into the memory of the target processor.
This mechanism is at the heart of Taos' dynamic binding facilities. See
Dynamic Binding, below.
It would be wrong to think that this slows the system down. Most
processors are able to translate VP into native code faster than the VP
code can be loaded from disk and sent across the network, so there is no
visible overhead. Indeed, VP code is often more compact than the native
code; therefore less disk space is used and code is loaded faster than if
it were the native for the processor.
If there are particular advantages in using a native version of the code,
then this can be stored on disk and will be loaded in preference to the
VP version. This would be because the performance of the code would
benefit from specific instructions supported in hardware by a particular
A VP version of the code will run on any processor for which a translator
is available. There is no need for re-compilation. see Portability, above.
Some readers may be familiar with dynamic linking. Taos dynamic binding
is more than dynamic linking. Code units are brought into memory only
when needed. This is how it works:
*As a process executes it will ask for a named piece of code, a tool.
*This will be brought in from disk and translated into native code,
before being executed.
*This tool may, in turn, call further tools, following the above
*Once a tool has finished being executed, it may be removed from memory
if no other process is referencing it.
This implies that many processes may share code (tools), i.e.
multi-threading of code. This is highly memory efficient. Once a tool has
finished being executed, it stays on the list of available tools. Should
it be needed again, this local copy will be used, thus avoiding a re-load
from disk. Only if memory gets filled up will the tool be flushed and
subsequent calls require a re-load from disk.
Taos' dynamic binding and VP code combine to enable Taos to exploit
heterogeneous parallel hardware.
Taos is able to run on any hardware for which there is a translator. This
provides the basic facility which enables programmers to write code which
can run on a wide range of hardware. This, together with Taos' dynamic
binding, enables programs to run over a network of differing processor
and communications types without any changes to the code, or any
Heterogeneous processing is the exploitation of a range of different
types of processor memory and communications hardware to create a
versatile parallel computing machine.
Such machines may be built from a variety of hardware to support
different kinds of computation. For example, a vision system requires a
front end to do the initial work on the raw images being received, to
find edges, shapes, etc. This stage of the problem is well suited to data
parallel hardware, whereas the back end will need to extract meaning from
the shapes, which is more suited to implementation on hardware supporting
list or network processing. The ability of software to run a variety of
hardware is essential for this type of machine to be successfully
Furthermore, Taos provides access to information about the hardware
available in the network. So, programs can take advantage of special
purpose hardware to run specific objects. This means that sophisticated
adaptive programs can be written within the Taos model to get the most
from heterogeneous machines.
Heterogeneous processing is the complete Open System, in which all
aspects of the processing are distributed across dissimilar processors,
networks and architecture's. It benefits consumers who can select
processors on the basis of current price:performance or whichever
criteria they select as their priority, without prejudicing future
decisions. For manufacturers, it gives them the flexibility to improve
hardware design and not become locked into historical decisions for the
sake of software compatibility.
The key to Taos' applicability to so many areas lies in its compact
kernel. This is all that is needed for a processor to provide all of the
The Taos kernel provides all the facilities needed to support its simple
execution model, yet the whole kernel is only 12K
The kernel executes on every processor in the network from boot, and its
facilities include memory management and caching, object creation,
distribution and execution, object message passing and tool calling.
There are also calls to provide global name management, local timer and
scheduling, and access to network hardware information.
The programmer is free to add objects to the system as appropriate.
Examples of these may be hardware drivers or file system objects.
OBJECTS AND MESSAGES
Taos objects are also parallel processes. Each object which Taos creates
is given its own process to execute it. The difference between objects
and processes lies what they are about; objects are about data and code,
they occupy memory space; processes are about processors, they consume
processor time. Put the two together and you have an object which is
executing, consuming memory space and processor time. A process brings an
object to life.
Objects can only interact with other objects by sending and receiving
messages. As objects can exist on separate processors, memory can not be
shared between objects. Taos provides a light-weight-mail system to
communicate between processors.
Messages are just like letters, you send them by posting them in a mail
box with an address on it. You use letters to communicate with people to
whom you cannot talk directly. So it is also with Taos objects; you use
messages to communicate with other objects, as you cannot talk to them
directly since they can be on separate processors.
When you send a message you specify the mail address of the recipient.
The sending of mail is equivalent to popping a letter into a post-box.
Conversely, each process has a mail-box in which mail is placed by the
messaging system. Objects receive mail by checking their mail-boxes.
Messages are typed, so the object can distinguish between a variety of
possible incoming message types. Messages conform to the basic node
format, plus extensions, to hold the sender's address and the message's
destination address. When mail arrives it is left on a list for the
receiving process to look at.
Taos provides a simple mechanism to send messages, there being only two
facilities in its messaging system, to send and receive messages.
Messages are sent asynchronously; once a message has been sent on its way
the sending process is free to continue its execution. Synchronous
communication can be achieved by waiting for a returned acknowledge
message. Taos' method of communication ensures that parallel processes
execute independently of one another for as much of the time as possible.
An object may need to wait for a message before it continues processing,
but a sending object will not wait until the destination has received it.
The mailing system uses a distributed algorithm which finds multiple
paths to a destination and may use more than one route for each message
sent, thus making best use of all available communication paths. If one
route is bottlenecked then the message will get through via another.
The whole conceptual approach to the design, implementation and execution
of Taos is organic. A program evolves to fill the network during runtime.
Other systems introduce bottlenecks by requiring a system-wide time-stamp
on all messages, or by maintaining a central control over the
Taos does not attempt to impose a central control over the execution of
an application. The kernel is small enough to exist on every processor,
providing local services to the objects on its processor and interacting
with adjacent processors' kernels to provide message passing and process
Distribution is based on processes which pass messages. Load balancing
(the distribution of processes over the network to maximise the
performance of the system) is achieved via a simple algorithm based on
the computation and communication requirements of the objects. When an
object is created, the loading on the local processor is compared with
the loading on neighbouring processors and the object is allocated to the
most suitable processor.
Each processor holds minimal routing information for each communications
channel to enable messages to be forwarded towards their destinations.
Messages are routed to their destinations in much the same way as water
flows down through pipes under the effect of gravity.
During the execution of a program, processes distribute themselves over
the available processors as they are created. The net effect is that
objects spread out over the available processors in much the same way as
a liquid spreads out over a surface.
OBJECT ORIENTATED DESIGN
Taos was conceived to take advantage of the reusability and robustness
provided by an object based approach to design.
Object ideas are exploited at all levels of Taos, from kernel data
structures to high level classes. Kernel objects are used to build higher
level messaging passing objects.
The basic data node structure used by Taos is inherited by all objects in
the system. This enables Taos to manipulate all entities which conform to
this very simple structure. Message passing objects, the messages which
they pass to each other and the tools which they use to process their
data all conform to this basic data structure. New types of object may be
introduced by the programmer.
1.Data nodes are the basic object in the system.
2.Tool objects are bits of code, like formal object orientated
programming's methods, but without any restrictions on their use.
3.Control objects, as they are known, are objects which have a process
associated with them. They communicate via messages and can be
distributed over processors. Such a message passing object will typically
contain several components which are references to tool objects. See
Objects and Messages above.
4.Classes provide higher level functionality such as the Window and
PolygonWorld. These are formed of message passing objects bound together
to form the class object. A class may make use of many objects working in
parallel. These objects are made available to the user in the form of
calls to the class to, for example, create new windows and manipulate
them using method calls. So the user just sees the functionality such as
'open window' and does not need to be concerned with underlying
parallelism generated by the execution of the objects in the class.
Programmers are encouraged to use existing messages, tools, objects, and
classes, to create their own new ones.
There are presently over 3000 tools covering a wide range of basic
functionality from string and file handing to classes supporting 3D
polygon worlds. Re-use and relax! A program to fly-through a fractal
landscape is a under 100 lines long, when written using the existing
OBJECT AND MEMORY MANAGEMENT
Taos executes objects and manages memory in a very consistent manner
The Taos software model uses processes, messages and objects, whilst its
hardware model uses processors with local memory and communication
channels between processors. The way to view objects is that they consume
memory space, whereas processes consume processor time. An object needs a
process to enable it to execute. Upon creation of an object Taos
allocates the object to a processor and then allocates a process to
execute the object. A typical Taos object is a few hundred bytes in size.
So, they lie between fine-grain Smalltalk-style objects and course-grain
The lowest level object in Taos is the 'node'. This is the simplest
entity with which Taos deals. It is a variable sized packet of data which
can be placed in a doubly linked list. All Taos entities conform to this
basic format. From this basic building block, other structures have been
grown, such as tools, messages and other types of system object.
Nodes have a type field which identifies what type of Taos object the
node holds and hence how it should be processed. Pre-defined types
include: Tools, Control Objects, Bitmaps, Graphical Objects and Class
Objects. The user can define new types.
Nodes are held in one of two forms. When the node is on disk or being
communicated across a network, it is held in 'template' form, as it is
loaded into memory and made ready to be executed it is converted to
'process-ready' form. As the template is converted to process-ready, any
translation from VP code to the local processor's native code is
performed, and the node is inserted into a list of other process-ready
objects (see Dynamic Binding and Portability). Once a node is in a
process-ready list it can be processed. The node type determines how it
is to be processed. Two types to focus on are the Control object and the
When a Control object is created the object's template is distributed and
made process ready on a processor. A process is made available to the
object and it starts to execute. A Control object is made up of one or
more components, which are all Taos nodes of one type or another. Each
component is executed in sequence until the last one is finished when the
Control object closes and its process finishes. The components may be
other Control objects, tools, graphic objects etc. Tools are bits of code
which operate on the data defined in a Control object. For example, they
may perform calculations and send and receive messages to and from other
Control objects. All Control objects are created by another Control
object, and each has the mail address of its parent, forming a tree.
Tools, being nodes, can be manipulated by the kernel. A Control object
may consist of some local memory space and some constituent tools which
operate on the data.
Whilst the Control object is the smallest entity which can execute in
parallel, it is not the finest granularity of memory management.
Individual tools can be loaded from disk, as they are also Taos objects
(conforming to the basic node format). A Control object template only
holds the text names of its constituent components, not the actual code.
As a Control object is created, the kernel checks to see if the tools
which the components reference are already available in memory, and if
they are, simply points to them. Only if an object is not present will it
be loaded from disk and be made process-ready. So all Taos objects can be
multi-threaded. You will never have two copies of the same object in the
same memory space, unless you specifically request it (See Dynamic
Another feature of this execution mechanism is that only those components
which are needed are ever loaded. If you design your application so that
it is built of hierarchically structured Control objects, then code will
only ever be loaded if it is executed. If the path of execution does not
pass the particular component then it will not be loaded and thus occupy
no space. So, the amount of memory consumed is kept to an absolute
minimum and is driven by the execution of the program.
Taos is the ground breaking revolution for which the electronics,
computing and communications worlds have been waiting. For years the
information world has been outgrowing its boots, becoming cumbersome and
sluggish. The push of new technologies and of parallel processing in
particular has forced a profound re-think of what an operating system
Taos provides what is needed, no more no less; it is simply the right
product at the right time. Elegant, compact and versatile, it provides
the programmer with simple yet powerful tools to exploit emerging
Taos is not just another development, it is a Holy Grail, a complete
product with substance as strong as the claims made for it, and
implications that can not yet be realised. Exactly what it is that makes
Taos so significant may be argued for a long time given its many benefits.
For those of us who are carrying the torch of OPEN COMPUTING, Taos
provides the ultimate open platform through distributed processes across
dissimilar processors to achieve HETEROGENEOUS PROCESSING. This is
achieved by having totally PORTABLE CODE. Taos-based applications are
written only once, so that software houses can now channel funding into
the development of new products rather than having to allocate vast sums
towards the porting of existing packages from one platform to another.
Taos' PARALLEL PROCESSING facilities generate a MASTERLESS NETWORK with
no practical limit on its size and providing LINEAR SCALABILITY of
performance. Developing products for a parallel environment has
traditionally been a major stumbling block. But writing parallel programs
for Taos is as easy as writing programs for a single processor
environment; and once a program is written it will run on any processor
supported by Taos without any changes. The LOAD BALANCING techniques
employed by Taos enable applications to exploit additional processing
power as it is added, without re-compilation, even during the execution
of a program.
Taos' OBJECT ORIENTATED programming techniques have led to the creation
of thousands of reusable tools which will be used over and over again in
future software developments. Object Orientated techniques have so far
failed to live up to expectations, but Taos shows that this methodology
can, if employed wisely, yield massive benefits to the programmer and end
Taos' lack of protocol layers makes it very reactive to stimuli and this
combined with its highly efficient DYNAMIC BINDING, provides the basis
for truly REAL TIME systems.
Taos' SCALABILITY enables it to underpin massive superscalable networks,
whilst its COMPACTNESS makes it an obvious choice for embedded
This only provides a brief overview of just some of the features and
benefits of Taos; despite this document's limitations, what we hope it
does emphasise is the remarkable flexibility of Taos and the broad range
of markets for which it is ideally suited.
However, if it failed to answer all your questions please contact:
Tel. +44 81 905 5708; Fax. +44 81 905 5709
or Tantric Technologies
Support Services and Development Kits
Tel. +44 703 230 340; Fax. +44 702 230 440
or write to
PO Box 2320, London NW11 6PW, England